Image Qualities of The Shroud of Turin
IMAGE QUALITIES OF THE SHOUD OF TURIN
- MONOCHROMATIC COLORATION . The image is portrayed in variable diffuse tones of a pale brownish-yellow color (consistent with a puce color). The intensity of the image shows what we call the half-tone effect, and is caused by the amount of discolored fibers per square unit.
- The image displays the light and dark characteristics that you normally observe in a PHOTOGRAPHIC NEGATIVE and that was discovered in 1898 when Secondo Pia made the first photographs of the Shroud. After developing his negative glass plates, he found to his surprise that they showed a positive image of the Man on the Shroud. This light/dark and left/right reversal has not been seen in Art before the discovery of photography in the 19th century.
- SUPERFICIALITY. The image is present only on the top two or three fibers of the threads. These fibers are hollow and the lumen is called medulla and shows no discoloration, and the individual fibers are all about the same color (monochromatic). It is important to note that these individual fibers of the threads are 10 to 20 times thinner than a human hair (14-8 micrometer for every fiber = 0.25-0.3 mm). Every yarn is composed of 70-120 linen fibers each 0.25-0.3 mm. According to Kevin Moran, on the sides of the fibers the image is like cut with a knife, visible with precision microscopy.
- NO DIRECTIONALITY. In a photograph one can observe a directionality, which means that you can see from which direction the light came that caused the shadows and light areas. The image on the Shroud does not show this characteristic and it seems that the image was formed straight up- and down, which is called “COLLIMATED”. There is also an absence of brushstrokes.
- X-RAY PROPERTIES. While studying the image on the ENRIE photographs, Prof Alan Whanger observed that in the face the sinuses were visible and also part of the teeth. In the image of the hands, the metacarpalia are visible like on an X-Ray photograph. It seems that part of the “energy” that caused the image had long wavelength X-Ray properties.
- NO OUTLINES. The image does not show any outlines and fades away in the surrounding Shroud. Artists normally use outlines when drawing an image of a person. In a photograph the outlines are also clearly visible.
- ANATOMICALLY CORRECT. The image of the Man on the Shroud is anatomically correct. There is foreshortening of the legs caused by the bending of the two legs. If the image formation was collimated, than that makes sense of course. The fact of the anatomical correctness excludes a process of image-formation by direct contact.
- IMAGELESS AREAS. Research has shown that there is no underlying image present under the blood spots, showing that the blood was present prior to the formation of the body-image.
- STABILITY. The image on the fibers shows a relative stability when subjected to heat, water and some chemicals.
- SERUM RETRACTION RING. Under Ultra Violet Fluorescent Photography, almost all the blood (scientific research has proven that it is human blood) shows a serum retraction ring of albumin around the solid parts of the blood, typical for post-mortem blood. This phenomenon is not visible with the naked eye and was unknown until about 100 years ago. Also there is no fluorescence in the image areas, but the scorch areas, (caused by the 1532 Chambery fire), do show fluorescence.
- CHEMICAL PROCESS. When the image fibers were subjected to scientific testing, the resulting findings were, that the image was caused by a chemical process of oxidation, dehydration and conjugation of the polysaccharide component of the flax fibers. This is the same process that occurs in the normal aging of linen fibers, but is extreme in the image, compared with the fibers in the non-image areas.
- 3D INFORMATION. The image on the Shroud varies inversely with the cloth-to-body-distance. This means that the darker the image the closer this part of the body was to the Shroud and the lighter the image the further away these parts of the body were from the Shroud when the image-processing occurred. This means that every pixel in the gray-scale of the Shroud-image carries a cloth-to-body-distance relationship. This particular quality was used to create the Holograms of the Shroud-image.
- REAL BLOOD IN THE IMAGE. The presence of blood is the result of direct contact of the body with the Shroud. Adler and Heller and others proved scientifically that this was real blood. Under the blood there is no image. The blood shows under UV light a serum-separation which is visible as a halo. The 2 photographs are from blood on the Frey tapes and show the blood and also with fluorescence light the haematite crystals in the blood.
There have been several attempts to reproduce the image on the Shroud. It is clear that the results of the processes involved should show ALL the 13 before mentioned characteristics of the Shroud image, not just 3, 7 or 9 of these image qualities. Every technique used to reproduce this image and that does not produce all these characteristics is a different process then the image-formation process that produced the image on the Shroud itself. Recently there was another attempt by Prof. Garlaschelli in Italy to show that with existing techniques in the 11th and 12th century the image could have been produced. Prof. Garlaschelli cannot answer questions on several of the characteristics that we mentioned before.